Electronic submission of documents
 
Since 2014, we have been using an E-TVL (Electronic sickness benefit document).  If the employer supplies the data of the employee electronically, the employee does not need to get a physical document from the doctor. When the period of incapacity ends, the doctor formalizes the electronic document in the computer and submits it to the EHIF database. When the employer submits the document through the state portal eesti.ee, the employee receives the benefit a few days after the employer has submitted the data.
 
Sickness benefit
 
The benefit for temporary incapacity to work is a monetary compensation paid to insured persons on the basis of a certificate of incapacity to work, if the person foregoes social-taxed income due to a temporary exemption from work. The procedure of paying the benefit for temporary incapacity to work depends on the type of certificate of incapacity to work and the cause of the incapacity to work.
 
In the case of illness, quarantine, non-work, traffic injury and the complications or illnesses caused by said occurrence, the benefit is paid by the employer from day 4 to day 8. By day 9, the benefit is paid by the Health Insurance Fund. In other cases (occupational disease, occupational accident (incl. traffic-related occupational accident and complications or illness caused as a result of an occupational accident), injuries caused as a result of protecting national or public interests and preventing a criminal offence), the benefit is paid only by the Health Insurance Fund and starting by the second day of the exemption from work. 
 
The benefit paid by the employer is based on the employee’s average wages during the last six months; the benefit paid by the Health Insurance Fund is based on the social tax paid for the employee during the calendar year preceding the illness (the relevant data can be obtained from the Estonian Tax and Customs Board).
 

Receiving sickness benefit

The payment of sickness benefits depends on the reasons for leaving work:

  • In the case of illness, quarantine, household or traffic injury, and complications and illnesses caused by traffic injuries, no sickness benefit is received for the first three days. For days 4 to 8, the benefit is paid by the employer, starting from day 9, the Health Insurance Fund. The benefit rate is 70% of daily wages, calculated by the employer based on the average wage in the last six months and by the Health Insurance Fund based on social tax payments made during the last calendar year.
  • If a pregnant person falls ill or is injured, compensation is received only from the Health Insurance Fund, starting from the second day at the rate of 70%.
  • In case of occupational diseases, workplace accidents (including work-related traffic accidents, complications and illnesses caused by workplace accidents) and injuries received when protecting the interests of the state or society and when preventing a crime, compensation is received only from the Health Insurance Fund, starting from the second day at the rate of 100%.
  • If the employee is given a job corresponding to their state of health or if the employee is transferred to an easier position, they receive sickness benefits from the Health Insurance Fund in an amount that is equal to their average daily income during the last year. If the employer cannot transfer the employee to an easier position, the insured person receives benefits from the Health Insurance Fund in the amount of 70% starting from the second day from the date of release from employment or service marked on the certificate of incapacity for work. The income tax is also withheld from the benefit.

An insured person is entitled to receive benefits for incapacity to work for 182 (in the case of tuberculosis, for 240)  consecutive calendar days. The restriction only applies to the period of receiving the benefit, not the period of the certificate for sick leave.

When the period of the leave ends, the doctor shall prepare an electronic certificate for incapacity to work on their computer and forward it to the database of the Health Insurance Fund. The data forwarded to the doctor and information related to the payment of the benefits are available on the state portal.

An employer must be notified of the termination of a certificate for incapacity to work in accordance with the agreement with the employee, either orally or in writing. The employee shall forward the data from the certificate for incapacity to work through the state portal and the benefit for incapacity to work shall be transferred to the person’s bank account within two work days after the employee has forwarded the data.