The general principle of patient rights is provided in The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia § 28. Everyone has the right to the protection of health.

An Estonian citizen has the right to state assistance in the case of old age, incapacity for work, loss of a provider, or need. The categories and extent of assistance, and the conditions and procedure for the receipt of assistance shall be provided by law. Citizens of foreign states and stateless persons who are in Estonia have this right equally with Estonian citizens, unless otherwise provided by law.

The state shall promote voluntary and local government welfare services.

Families with many children and persons with disabilities shall be under the special care of the state and local governments.

The right to the protection of health does not mean that the state has an obligation to guarantee all of the known health promotion services (e.g. cosmetic surgery or lifestyle-related medicinal products); the state imposes a set list of national healthcare services, which are allowed to its citizens. National health care service plan must include scientifically proven treatments and diagnostic methods, which are necessary for people to maintain and improve their quality of life and are appropriate to each patient's health status.

The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia § 28 means that if such list of health care services has been established, it shall be guaranteed equally to all without discrimination, i.e. such services must be available and accessible to all on even terms.

If the patient feels that his or her rights have been violated, it is possible to file a complaint to health care service provider, the Health Board, the health insurance fund or the committee of experts on health care quality.